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What is the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)?
-It is a virus identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China being spread by animal to person as well as person to person. No community spread of 2019-nCovV has been identified in the United States at this time.
How is 2019-nCoV spread?
There is still quite a bit of unknowns about how 2019-nCoV. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. It is rare that animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS, SARS, and now with 2019-nCoV.
Person-to-person is thought to occur mainly via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. These droplets then end up in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or inhaled into the lungs. It’s currently unclear if a person can get 2019-nCoV by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, so good hand washing is highly recommended.
How can you prevent getting 2019-nCov?
There is currently no vaccine for 2019-nCoV infection.
The best way to prevent infection is to avoid being exposed to this virus.
Continue everyday preventive actions to help prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, including:
•Wash your hands often with soap and water.
•If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
•Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
•Avoid contact with people who are sick.
•Do not go to work or school while sick.
•Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a regular household cleaning spray or wipe.
•If you feel sick with fever, cough, or difficulty breathing, and have traveled to China or were in close contact with someone with 2019-nCoV in the 14 days before you began to feel sick, seek medical care. Before you go to a doctor’s office or emergency room, call ahead and tell them about your recent travel and your symptoms.
-Avoid traveling to China at this time
-Do not use facemasks
For the most up to date developing information, visit CDC.gov
-The American and European allergy expert committee guidelines recommend that solid foods be introduced between four to six months of age in all infants
-The most common food allergens in children in the United States and many other countries include cow's milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, tree nuts, and seafood (shellfish and fish).
Previous guidelines recommended delayed introduction of highly allergenic solid foods for the purpose of preventing allergic disease in high-risk infants. More recent evidence suggests that this practice may increase rather than decrease the incidence of food allergies.
-The current recommendations are early introduction of highly allergenic solid foods in high-risk infants. These infants should be at least four months of age, be developmentally ready, and have tolerated a few less allergenic complementary foods, such as rice cereal and pureed fruits or vegetables.
-The one exception is liquid, whole cow’s milk, which should be avoided in all infants less than one year of age for reasons unrelated to allergy. Cow’s milk formula and other cow’s milk products such as those in baked goods, cheese, and yogurt do not need to be restricted prior to age one year.
What you need to know about Measles:
The CDC considers you protected if:
*You have had 2 doses of a mesasles containing vaccine and are school aged (grades K-12) or an adult in a high risk setting.
*You receive 1 dose of a measeles containing vaccine and you are preschool age
*An adult in a non-high risk setting
If planning to travel internationally:
*You should have at least 1 dose of the mesasles vaccine for kids 6-11 months and 2 doses for ages 12 months and older.
Do you never need a booster vaccine?
*No, 2 doses is protection for life
How effective is the vaccine?
According to the CDC, the vaccine is very effective. Two doses is about 97% effective and 1 dose is about 93% effective.
How long does the vaccine take to work?
A person is usually considered protected 2-3 weeks after getting the vaccine
Where does the measles in the United States come from?
*Typically from traveler from any country where the disease still occurs
*Pockets of unvaccinated communites within the United States
Here are the top 4 things parents should know about measles:
1. Measles CAN be serious
-Signs and symptoms include: High fever, runny nose, red watery eyes, rash(3-5 days after inital symptoms begin)
2.Measles IS contagious
-It is spread through the air
3.Your child CAN still get the measles in the United States
4. You have the power to protect your child against the measles with a safe and effective vaccine
What is bronchiolitis? — Bronchiolitis is a common viral infection that affects a part of the lungs called the “bronchioles.” The bronchioles are the small, branching tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. When these tubes are infected, they get swollen and full of mucus. That makes it hard to breathe. Bronchiolitis usually affects children younger than 2 years of age. In most children, bronchiolitis goes away on its own, but some children with bronchiolitis need to be seen by a doctor. The most common cause of bronchiolitis is a virus called “respiratory syncytial virus,” or “RSV.”
What are the symptoms of bronchiolitis? — Bronchiolitis usually begins like a regular cold. Children who get bronchiolitis usually start off with:
- A stuffy or runny nose
- A mild cough
- A fever (temperature higher than 100.4ºF or 38ºC)
- A decreased appetite
As bronchiolitis progresses, other symptoms may develop, including:
- Breathing fast or having trouble breathing. In infants, the first sign can be a pause in breathing that lasts more than 15 or 20 seconds.
- Wheezing, or a whistling sound when breathing (which usually lasts about 7 days)
- A severe cough (which can last for 14 days or longer)
- Trouble eating and drinking — because of the other symptoms
Should I take my child to see a doctor or nurse? Many children with bronchiolitis may not need to see a doctor. However, you should watch and arrange f/u for concerning symptoms that involve increase in difficulty breathing, including wheezing; increased congestion with problems with feeding, any signs of choking or severe gagging from increased mucus, and problems with maintaining adequate hydration and urine output.
Call 9-1-1 for an ambulance if your child:
- Stops breathing
- Starts to turn blue or very pale
- Has a very hard time breathing
- Starts grunting
- Looks like he or she is getting tired of having to work so hard to breathe
Call our clinic if you have any questions or concerns about your child, or if:
- The skin and muscles between your child’s ribs or below your child’s ribcage look like they are caving in and there is struggling with breathing
- Your child’s nostrils flare (get bigger) when he or she takes a breath
- Worsening cough and congestion
- Your infant younger than 3 months has a fever (temperature greater than 100.4ºF or 38ºC)
- Your child older than 3 months has a fever (temperature greater than 100.4ºF or 38ºC) for more than 3 days
- Your infant has fewer wet diapers than normal
How is bronchiolitis treated? — The main treatments for bronchiolitis are aimed at making sure that your child is getting enough oxygen, and able to breathe well despite the increased mucus that this virus produces. To do that, your child may need to receive:
- Moist air or oxygen to breathe
- Medicines to help open up the airways
- Deep suctioning of the airways
Bronchiolitis does not need to be treated with antibiotics because it is a virus, however children may develop complications from the virus including ear infections or pneumonia. If your child has a persistent fever or if he was getting better and then gets sick again, please call for an appointment.
Is there anything I can do on my own to help my child feel better? — Yes. You can:
- Make sure your child gets enough fluids. Call our office if your infant has fewer wet diapers than normal.
- Use a humidifier in your child's bedroom
- Treat your child's fever with non-prescription medicines, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen (if your child is over 6 months of age).
- Suction the mucus from your child’s nose with a suction bulb
- If your child is older than 12 months, feed him or her warm, clear liquids to soothe the throat and to help loosen mucus
- Prop your child's head up on pillows or with the help of a car seat. Do not use pillows if your child is younger than 12 months old.
- Sleep in the same room as your child, so that you know right away if he or she starts having trouble breathing
How did my child get bronchiolitis? — Bronchiolitis is caused by viruses that spread easily from person to person. These viruses live in the droplets that go into the air when a sick person coughs or sneezes.
Can bronchiolitis be prevented? — You can reduce the chances that your child will get bronchiolitis by:
- Washing your hands and your child’s hands often with soap and water, or using alcohol hand rubs
- Staying away from other adults and children who are sick
Adapted from UptoDate.com